Research and Reports Blog
Date Posted: May 15, 2017
Author(s): Krishna Bista
In this chapter, the author examines the perceptions of community college faculty’s international experience and internationalization at their campuses. The findings indicated a statistical difference between two types of faculty members: foreign-born faculty vs. US-born faculty and faculty with a prior international experience vs. faculty without an international experience. The outcomes of this study may help institutions of higher education enhance campus internationalization resources and diversity activities and provide faculty a rewarding workplace.
Citation: Bista, K. (2016). Faculty international experience and internationalization efforts at two-year colleges in the United States. In R. L. Raby & E. Valeau (Eds.), International education at community colleges: Themes, practices, and case studies. New York, NY: Palgrave Publishers.
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Shaila Danielle Mulholland
While new community colleges proliferated across the nation during the 1950s and 1960s, Indiana’s postsecondary educational leaders pursued an alternative route to expanding educational opportunity during the postwar years through extension campuses. The study reported in this article draws on archival documents to gain an understanding of the rationale and motivations for opposing community college development in Indiana during the 1950s and the 1960s. Two research questions guided this analysis. First, how did state and educational leaders frame the issues, problems, and alternatives related to the expansion of post–high school educational opportunities? Second, why did policy actors in Indiana choose strategies different from those selected by most other states?
Citation: Mulholland, S. D. (2012). The Indiana story: How the extension movement was won. Community College Review, 40, 340-360. doi: 10.1177/0091552112458150
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Ketevan Mamiseishvili, and Lynn C. Koch
This study used data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to examine the demographic and in-college characteristics of students with disabilities at 2-year institutions, identify the types of educational services available to them, and determine how students’ disability conditions and their selected demographic and in-college characteristics related to their persistence. Nearly 25% of the students with disabilities in the sample did not persist beyond their first year, and almost 51% left without return by the end of their third year. The results from chi-square tests revealed that nonpersistence was associated with depression, physical or orthopedic conditions and other conditions not specified in the survey. Delayed enrollment decreased the likelihood of both first-to-second and 3-year persistence. Conversely, full-time enrollment, high grade point averages (GPAs), high degree aspirations, and meetings with academic advisors were positively related to persistence. Recommendations for faculty members, administrators, and disability services staff members at 2-year institutions are provided.
Citation: Mamiseishvili, K., & Koch, L. C. (2012). Students with disabilities at 2-year institutions in the united states: Factors related to success. Community College Review, 40, 320-339. doi: 10.1177/0091552112456281
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Xueli Wang
Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study explored factors that predict stability of educational expectations among baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Based on a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate-aspiring high school seniors of 2004 who entered community colleges as their first postsecondary institutions, this study tested a logistic regression model and found that among precollege characteristics, students’ SES and perceived importance of getting a good education were positively related to the likelihood of retaining baccalaureate expectations 2 years after high school graduation. Among postsecondary predictors, the likelihood of students’ persistence in baccalaureate expectations was positively influenced by interaction with faculty members outside of class and studying in school libraries, but was negatively associated with having reading remediation, receiving financial aid, and being married. These findings have implications for community colleges in providing effective educational practices to help students move forward toward their degree goals.
Citation: Wang, X. (2012). Stability of educational expectations among baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Community College Review, 40, 300-319. doi: 10.1177/0091552112454914
Categories: Student Success
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Shinobu Anzai, and Chie Matsuzawa Paik
Two-year colleges have played an important role in providing postsecondary education for women in postwar Japan. More recently, a dwindling college-bound population in Japan has resulted in a drastic decrease in the number of and enrollment in 2-year colleges. This study explored the motivations and aspirations of 12 Japanese female students to understand the factors influencing their choice of a 2-year college. Findings suggest that 2-year college administrators and faculty members need to hear the voices of female students in today’s society. This will enhance the colleges’ role in community-based higher education and help them better serve the interests of prospective students and the needs of regional businesses and industries. Findings are discussed in the context of contemporary Japanese society.
Citation: Anzai, S., & Paik, C. M. (2012). Japanese female students’ perceptions of 2-year colleges as a choice for postsecondary education. Community College Review, 40, 279-299. doi: 10.1177/0091552112454674
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Eugene Oropeza Fujimoto
This case study examines why 2-year colleges struggle to increase the racial diversity of their faculty. Through interrogating hiring procedures and identifying reasonable expectations for diversity within a college faculty, ethical dilemmas and practical implications of efforts to increase the hiring of faculty members of color emerge.
Citation: Fujimoto, E. O. (2012). Hiring diverse faculty members in community colleges: A case study in ethical decision making. Community College Review, 40, 255-274. doi: 10.1177/0091552112450069
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Diane E. Oliver, and Barbara Hioco
This article provides community college administrators, as well as university faculty members who teach doctoral and master’s courses in community college leadership, with a framework that facilitates ethical decision making. Administrators’ decisions must be grounded in critical thinking that includes ethical considerations.
Citation: Oliver, D. E., & Hioco, B. (2012). An ethical decision-making framework for community college administrators. Community College Review, 40, 240-254. doi: 10.1177/0091552112445611
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Geoffrey Propheter, and Su Jin Jez
Recent improprieties by community college administrators have scarred the public trust. Efforts to secure against maladministration are firmly rooted in utilitarian and deontological ethics. In this article, the authors argue that these common approaches cannot remedy maladministration in the community college because utilitarianism and deontology are part of the problem and, therefore, cannot be part of the solution. Instead, the authors make the case that virtue ethics provides the best framework for moral community college administration while also being the best means of restoring public trust.
Citation: Propheter, G., & Jez, S. J. (2012). Whither utility and duty? A case for virtue in community college administration. Community College Review, 40, 215-239. doi: 10.1177/0091552112450460
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): J. Luke Wood, and Adriel A. Hilton
This article encourages community college leaders to employ ethical paradigms when constructing and considering alternative courses of action in decision-making processes. The authors discuss four previously articulated paradigms (e.g., ethic of justice, ethic of critique, ethic of care, and ethic of the profession) and propose an additional paradigm—the ethic of local community. The ethic of local community is a communitarian and utilitarian frame embodied by the philosophical underpinnings and mission of the community college. Questions designed for praxis are proffered following a discourse on how each paradigm is defined and described in extant literature.
Citation: Wood, J. L., & Hilton, A. A. (2012). Five ethical paradigms for community college leaders: Toward constructing and considering alternative courses of action in ethical decision making. Community College Review, 40, 196-214. doi: 10.1177/0091552112448818
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Richard M. Romano
This study reviews the historical trend of college revenues and expenditures from a national perspective using primarily data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) as reported by the Delta Project for the years 1999-2009. Looking at trends related to state and local appropriations, college costs and prices, output, and productivity, it argues that various policy issues flow from these trends. The recommendations that follow are not precise prescriptions for legislative action, but rather suggestions for the direction of public and institutional policy that invite further reflection and research.
Citation: Romano, R. M. (2012). Looking behind community college budgets for future policy considerations. Community College Review, 40, 165-189. doi: 10.1177/0091552112441824
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Linda Serra Hagedorn, and Agustina Veny Purnamasari
American policy makers, educators, and others are concerned that predicted workforce shortages in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields will have a catastrophic impact on the economy. This article takes a realistic look at the “STEM problem,” identifying how community colleges can be a part of the solution. We provide evidence that shortages in STEM workers vary by geographic locale. Furthermore, STEM achievement is not consistent across ethnic groups or between men and women. These gaps may be due to unequal access to STEM degree programs and the shortage of quality STEM teachers.
Citation: Hagedorn, L. S., & Purnamasari, A. V. (2012). A Realistic look at STEM and the role of community colleges. Community College Review, 40, 145-164. doi: 10.1177/0091552112443701
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Christopher M. Mullin
This article examines measures of student success, with a focus on how they apply to community colleges. A conceptual framework is presented as a way of facilitating thinking about and accurately grounding discussions of student success. The article closes with an examination of emerging concepts related to the measurement of student success in higher education generally and at community colleges particularly.
Citation: Mullin, C. M. (2012). Student success: Institutional and individual perspectives. Community College Review, 40, 126-144. doi: 10.1177/0091552112441501
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Debra D. Bragg, and Brian Durham
In an era when college completion dominates the policy agenda, matters of access and equity are critically important. The allure of raising completion rates by reducing access for students thought unprepared for college and incapable of finishing is too attractive to deny. This article discusses the importance of linking access and completion to ensure that equitable outcomes are obtained by community college learners and examines the question of how policy affects access in the context of the nation’s college completion agenda. Key national initiatives undertaken to increase completion are examined with an eye toward understanding how the strategies developed by these initiatives affect student access and success.
Citation: Suggested citation – Bragg, D. D., & Durham, B. (2012). Perspectives on access and equity in the era of (community) college completion. Community College Review, 40, 106-125. doi: 10.1177/0091552112444724
Categories: Student Success
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Matthew M. Mars, and Mary Beth Ginter
Employing interviews with individuals from 16 community colleges across the country, as well as an independent consultant engaged in activities of the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE), this study considers the organizational structures and academic practices associated with community college entrepreneurship education. More specifically, community college entrepreneurship education is argued to be a market-oriented trend that has been largely overlooked as a curricular alternative to workforce development models. The exploration is guided by and placed within the context of academic capitalism as articulated by Slaughter and Rhoades.
Citation: Mars, M. M. (2012). Academic innovation and autonomy: An exploration of entrepreneurship education within American community colleges and the academic capitalist context. Community College Review, 40, 75-95. doi: 10.1177/0091552111436209
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Vilma Mesa
This study reports on the results of a survey of achievement goal orientations administered to a sample of 777 students enrolled in remedial and college-level mathematics courses at a community college. Results indicate that students’ achievement goal orientations are consistent with adaptive learning patterns: Students are interested in developing competence, expect and believe they can handle challenging work, avoid self-handicapping behaviors, and exhibit a positive mathematics self-concept. However, interviews with faculty members teaching the courses in which the students were enrolled revealed that instructors had a more negative perspective. This discrepancy suggests that instructors might not be taking advantage of the high confidence and motivation to learn that their students bring to the mathematics classroom.
Citation: Suggested citation – Mesa, V. (2012). Achievement goal orientations of community college mathematics students and the misalignment of instructor perceptions. Community College Review, 40, 46-74. doi: 10.1177/0091552111435663
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Andrew F. Wall, Chelsea BaileyShea, and Scott McIntosh
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among 47% of 17- to 24-year-old community college students, a figure that reflects national trends at 4-year colleges, and a significant heavy consumption rate (23%) among students who are 25 or older. Similarly, the study found that consumption and harm varied by individual background, environment, and student attitudes. Community colleges are challenged to consider the role alcohol plays in student health and learning, and whether new efforts to ameliorate the harm from heavy alcohol use are warranted in an era of limited institutional resources.
Citation: Suggested citation – Wall, A. F., BaileyShea, C., & McIntosh, S (2012). Community college student alcohol use: Developing context-specific evidence and prevention approaches. Community College Review, 40, 25-45. doi: 10.1177/0091552112437757
Categories: Student Affairs
Date Posted: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Charles Henderson, Herb Fynewever, Heather Petcovic, and Andrea Bierema
The purpose of this study is to identify the local impacts of national advanced technological education (ATE) centers on their host institutions. A sample of three mature, national ATE centers are chosen, with each center serving as a case for a mixed-methods, collective case study research design. Results, drawn from interviews and surveys, indicate that national ATE centers create a variety of direct local impacts (i.e., impacts related to improving education in the targeted technology field) and indirect local impacts (i.e., impacts on the host institution that are beyond the targeted technology field). Direct impacts are created by a depth of focus on and connections to the targeted technology field, whereas indirect impacts are created by diversification within the host institution through collaborations with other projects on campus. The organizational structure and physical location of a center are also found to be important factors affecting the types of impacts created. In addition, characteristics such as strong center–industry partnerships, leadership qualities of the center directors, and a culture that promotes grant getting at the host institution are found to contribute to both types of impacts. The authors suggest that local impacts can be sustained through development and articulation of an ATE center’s core competencies.
Citation: Suggested citation – Henderson, C., Fynewever, H., Petcovic, H., & Bierema, A (2012). Identifying the local impacts of national ATE centers on their host institutions: An exploratory study. Community College Review, 40, 3-24. doi: 10.1177/0091552112436678
Date Posted: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Janine M. Allen, Cathleen L. Smith, and Jeanette K. Muehleck
Educators assert that academic advising before and after transferring enhances the success of baccalaureate degree-seeking students who begin at community colleges. Yet, there is little research that investigates the kinds of advising that are differentially important to pre- versus posttransfer students. In this study, we examined the importance ascribed to 12 advising functions by two groups: (a) students enrolled at two community colleges who intended to transfer to 4-year institutions and (b) students enrolled at five universities who had transferred from one of the study community colleges. Pretransfer students differed significantly from posttransfer students in their ratings of 7 of the 12 functions. Results highlight the kinds of advising that are particularly important to pretransfer students, as well as advising functions that are highly valued by both groups. Implications for advising practices at 2- and 4-year institutions are discussed.
Citation: Allen, J. A., Smith, C. L., & Muehleck, J. K. (2013). What kinds of advising are important to community college pre- and posttransfer students?. Community College Review, 41, 330-345. doi: 10.1177/0091552113505320
Date Posted: October 16, 2015
Author(s): John S. Levin, Laurencia Walker, Zachary Haberler, and Adam Jackson-Boothby
Through qualitative field methods research addressing faculty of color in four California community colleges, this investigation examines and explains faculty experiences and professional sense making. By combining critical race theory with social identity theory, our perspective underlines the potential social and ethnic identity conflicts inherent in the daily lives of faculty of color. The professional and social identities of faculty of color are not necessarily compatible, leading to a condition of “double consciousness,” or what we refer to as “the divided self.”
Citation: Levin, J. S., Walker, L., Haberler, Z., & Jackson-Boothby, A (2013). The divided self: The double consciousness of faculty of color in community colleges. Community College Review,41, 311-329. doi: 10.1177/0091552113504454
Categories: Faculty, Race and Class
Date Posted: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Erin L. Castro
Social science methodologies of intervention programming for college and career readiness, particularly in regard to evaluation, must be situated within a larger context of racialized readiness for college and career. The policy context for this argument is a state-level evaluation of college and career readiness legislation in Illinois using David Conley’s framework as one way to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programming offered by community colleges to high school students. Using critical race theory, I provide an example from an Illinois evaluation to show that when used as an evaluative rubric to assess college and career readiness intervention programming for high school students, Conley’s framework has potential but needs to be augmented. Concluding are conceptual and practical recommendations for community college practitioners, evaluators, and policymakers.
Citation: Castro, E. L. (2013). Racialized readiness for college and career: Toward an equity-grounded social science of intervention programming. Community College Review, 41, 292-310. doi: 10.1177/0091552113504291